Physical and political history of Chile according to documents acquired in this republic for twelve years of residence there and published under the auspices of the supreme government on Flickr.

By Gay, Claudio, 1800-1873 
Publication info Paris, Home of the author, 1844-1871.
Contributing Library:
Research Library, The Getty Research Institute
BioDiv. Library

(via scientificillustration)


Renal connections to the urinary system and the vessels of the hepatic parenchyma

[Remember: RenalKidney and Hepatic Liver]

The liver, like most organs, has a stroma, which is the connective tissue that provides structure, and a parenchyma, which is the functional part of the organ.

The parenchyma of the liver is highly vascularized, and hepatocytes form lobules (the filtering units) in hexagonal groups, centered around a central vein. These veins, arteries, and bile ducts (leading to and from the gall bladder -  the balloon seen in the bottom center of the image) facilitate the processing of foods and toxins from the intestines.

In general, the liver is extremely good at its job - paired with the kidneys’ ability to filter the general blood supply, we’ve evolved to process almost all environmental and ingested toxins that are presented to us in our day-to-day lives. After all, we could never have eaten raw meat and survived on dirty roots for most of our evolutionary history without that.

While some conditions, such as cirrhosis and renal failure inhibit our ability to process environmental toxins, adding “detoxification” scams to what your body has to process can actually harm, more than help. There are already established and effective medical procedures and diets for those with genuine organ troubles.

Anatome quartum renovata. Thomae Bartholini, 1684.


Anatomy and Position of the Kidney in the body

The kidney is a fascinating and under-appreciated organ. Even its name is interesting: while the Greek nephros and the Latin renes are both used as medical terms for the kidney and its anatomy, the origin of the common name in English - “kidney” - is actually unknown. It may be from the Old English terms cwið (womb) + ey (egg), from its shape, but there is no clear consensus on its origins.

The kidney serves many functions, but its most obvious is creating urine. The process of doing that is surprisingly complex, and involves regulation of blood pressure, re-absorbing vital nutrients, excreting urea from protein catabolism, and secreting hormones such as erythropoietin (which stimulates red blood cell creation).

These are four major sections of the kidney:

  • Capsule - A tough, fibrous layer of tissue, surrounded by a thick layer of fat, which protects the kidney.
  • Cortex - Just inside the capsule, the outermost layer of the kidney itself, which contains renal corpuscules and tubules. Ultrafiltration and erythropoietin production happens here.
  • Medulla -  The inner tissue of the kidney, split up into renal pyramids. This is where the arteries split up, serum comes out of the blood, and ions and glucose are processed.
  • Renal Pelvis - This is the convergence point of the major calcyes, and funnels urine into the ureter, which goes to the bladder. The transitional epithelium in this section of the kidney is the cause of many types of kidney cancers.

Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied. Henry Gray, 1918.

(via biomedicalephemera)


Eric Roux-Fontaine - Paintings

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The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) dir. Wes Anderson

Unlike most films, in which random and often repeated text is used, every time a newspaper article appears it is a detailed and complete depiction of the events in the headline.


The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) dir. Wes Anderson

Unlike most films, in which random and often repeated text is used, every time a newspaper article appears it is a detailed and complete depiction of the events in the headline.

(via everythingaboutfilm)




Sea Pig (Scotoplanes sp.)

Sea pigs are deep-sea holothurians (sea cucumbers), members of a group known as the elasipods. These sea pigs shown belong to the genus Scotoplanes and were photographed by the Canadian Ocean Observatory Neptune at the Eastern Pacific (the bottom photo was taken at 2324m in depth).

A typical Scotoplanes has a fat, oval body which may be around 10 cm in length, a mouth surrounded by ten feeding tentacles, five to seven pairs of walking “feet”, and three pairs of papillae on the upper surface of the body. Two of these pairs of papillae are long and whip-like, but the third pair is short and inconspicuous. It is believed that these papillae have a sensory function, helping the animal to “smell” its way to tasty sediments 

Photographs and digital images of these animals in situ show that they have a slight resemblance to feeding pigs, hence their common name.

The “walking legs” of these creatures are greatly modified fluid-filled tube feet (tube feet are hydraulically operated locomotory organs possessed by all echinoderms). 

[Animalia - Echinodermata - Holothuroidea - Elasipodida - Elpidiidae - Scotoplanes - Scotoplanes globosa Théel, 1879]

Reference: [1]

Photo credit: ©Ocean Networks Canada | [Top] - [Bottom


get to know me meme: [2/5] favorite movies

The Silence Of The Lambs

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(via From Germany to Mexico: How America’s source of immigrants has changed over a century | Pew Research Center)